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BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 36  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 363-364

Effect of yoga and physical exercises on components of metabolic syndrome among persons with intellectual disability


1 Govt Rehabilitation Institute for Intellectual Disability, Chandigarh, India
2 Govt Rehabilitation Institute for Intellectual Disability; Department of Psychiatry, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, India

Date of Submission24-Jul-2020
Date of Decision27-Jul-2020
Date of Acceptance29-Jul-2020
Date of Web Publication31-Dec-2020

Correspondence Address:
Prof. B S Chavan
Department of Psychiatry, Government Medical College and Hospital, Sector - 32, Chandigarh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijsp.ijsp_229_20

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  Abstract 


Persons with intellectual disability (ID) are at higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome and have lower level of physical fitness as compared to normal population. The study was carried out to examine the impact of yoga and physical exercises on overweight children with ID. The results demonstrated significant reduction in waist circumference and blood pressure, significant increase in the value of high-density lipoprotein and reduction in the value of LDL in both the groups.

Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, yoga


How to cite this article:
Sharma M, Kumar S, Chavan B S. Effect of yoga and physical exercises on components of metabolic syndrome among persons with intellectual disability. Indian J Soc Psychiatry 2020;36:363-4

How to cite this URL:
Sharma M, Kumar S, Chavan B S. Effect of yoga and physical exercises on components of metabolic syndrome among persons with intellectual disability. Indian J Soc Psychiatry [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Jan 28];36:363-4. Available from: https://www.indjsp.org/text.asp?2020/36/4/363/305942



Persons with intellectual disability (ID) are at higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MS) than the general population as their physical fitness is less than that of people without ID.[1] The prevalence of physical inactivity, poor diets, and obesity among people with ID is high.[2] This may be attributed to their sedentary lifestyle and can be associated with their health and mental condition. The research has reported that a low motivation to participate in physical activities, inadequate social support, unclear policies, and a lack of financial support are major factors inhibiting engagement in physical activities by people with ID.[3]

A study was conducted at Government Rehabilitation Institute for Intellectual Disabilities (GRIID), Sector 31, Chandigarh, to study the effect of yoga and physical exercises on the components of MS among persons with ID. For the purpose of this study, out of 430 students who were studying at GRIID, 60 students having mild-to-moderate disability who had either overweight or obesity (body mass index equal to or more than 25) were identified. After arranging these 60 students in serial order according to their date of admission, every third student was included in the study. Out of these 20 shortlisted students, 10 students with odd numbers underwent yoga and another 10 students with even number underwent physical exercise. The mean IQ of both the groups was similar, and none of the participants was on any medication. At baseline, before starting yoga and physical exercise, fasting biochemical investigations (blood sugar, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and triglycerides) were carried out at a tertiary care medical college. Baseline waist circumference was measured in centimeters just above the hipbone in the standing position, and blood pressure (BP) was recorded by a nurse working in the institute at 9.00 am.

Yoga and gym exercises were provided by the trained yoga instructor with more than 10 years of experience working with children with ID. The yoga included Pawanmukta, Surya namaskar, Asana, Pranayama, meditation, and relaxation. Each session lasted for 1 h. The physical exercises were in the form of treadmill, cycling, sits-up exercise, and twister and whole session lasted for 1 h. Group A received yoga for 60 min daily 5 days a week, and a total of 60 sessions were provided. Group B received physical exercises for 60 min daily 5 times a week, and again, a total of 60 sessions were given.

Postintervention biochemical investigations were repeated to see the difference in the scores under different predefined domains. Since the sample size was small, nonparametric analysis (Chi-square) was conducted to make the inference from the collected data. The results showed that in both groups, there was significant reduction in waist circumference. Further, there was significant reduction in the values of BP. There was also significant increase in the value of high-density lipoprotein and reduction in the value of LDL. However, there was increase in the mean value of fasting blood sugar.

An earlier study had shown that participation in yoga by the children with ID increased the opportunity for health benefits when compared to previously nonstructured exercise sessions. Another study showed that participation in yoga led to sharp increase in exercise behavior and perceived level of exertion, and if such behavior can continue over an extended period, it may help in reduction of risk of developing chronic health diseases and improving physical fitness level.[4]

There is no study to document the effect of physical exercises among persons with ID. According to the Centers for Disease Control, individuals with ID are significantly at risk for becoming overweight or obese[4] and sedentary lifestyles and low participation in exercise activities are the main factors leading to these health risk factors.[5]

Thus, the findings of the study recommend that yoga and physical exercises must be made mandatory by the institutions working with ID children, particularly for children with overweight and obesity to prevent further medical complications.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Elmahgoub SM, Lambers S, Stegen S, Van Laethem C, Cambier D, Calders P. The influence of combined exercise training on indices of obesity, physical fitness and lipid profile in overweight and obese adolescents with mental retardation. Eur J Pediatr 2009;168:1327-33.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Robertson J, Emerson E, Gregory N, Hatto C, Turner S, Kessissoglou S, et al. Lifestyle related risk factors for poor health in residential settings for people with intellectual disabilities. Res Dev Disabil 2000;21:469-86.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Temple VA, Walkley JW. Perspectives of constraining and enabling factors for health-promoting physical activity by adults with intellectual disability. J Intellect Dev Disabil 2007;32:28-38.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Hawkins BL, Stegall JB, Weber MF, Ryan JB. The influence of a yoga exercise program for young adults with intellectual disabilities. Int J Yoga 2012;5:151-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
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5.
Lin JD, Lin PY, Lin LP, Chang YY, Wu SR, Wu JL. Physical activity and its determinants among adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Res Dev Disabil 2010;31:263-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    




 

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