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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 38  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 73-85

Effectiveness of Yoga Nidra Intervention (Meditation) in improving well-being of an individual


Institute of Management Studies, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh; School of Business Management, Jaipur National University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Date of Submission27-Feb-2020
Date of Decision18-Jun-2020
Date of Acceptance28-Jul-2020
Date of Web Publication30-Mar-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Manish Kumar Dwivedi
S 13 LDA Colony Aishbagh, Lucknow - 226 004, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijsp.ijsp_32_20

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  Abstract 


Objective: The present study has investigated the impact of Yoga Nidra in improving the wellbeing of an individual. Context: Thomas argued that there is no precise definition of well-being, and he argued that well-being is intangible, difficult to define, and even hard to measure. The impact of stress causes physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral disorders which result in deteriorating the well-being of an individual. Yoga Nidra relaxes the body at physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual levels. Methods: The comprehensive scale of well-being comprises these factors that are taken into consideration for assessing the well-being at these levels. The study investigated the well-being before and after the administration of Yoga Nidra intervention to the participants. This is a pre- and post test experimental study in which factors of well-being are being explored through extensive literature survey and instrument of well-being has been developed. The various factors were explored through exploratory factor analysis and validated it through confirmatory factor analysis. Results and Conclusion: The results showed that there is a significant influence of physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual components on well-being.

Keywords: Awareness and meaningfulness and transcendence, compassion, connection, emotional, mental, mindfulness, physical, spiritual, well-being


How to cite this article:
Dwivedi MK. Effectiveness of Yoga Nidra Intervention (Meditation) in improving well-being of an individual. Indian J Soc Psychiatry 2022;38:73-85

How to cite this URL:
Dwivedi MK. Effectiveness of Yoga Nidra Intervention (Meditation) in improving well-being of an individual. Indian J Soc Psychiatry [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Jun 30];38:73-85. Available from: https://www.indjsp.org/text.asp?2022/38/1/73/341334




  Introduction Top


The different researchers emphasized well-being in different perceptive: ability to fulfill goals,[1] happiness,[2] and life satisfaction.[3],[4] Shin and Johnson defined well-being as “a global assessment of a person's quality of life according to his own chosen criteria.”[5] Joseph and Wood argued that the positive psychology contributes to maintaining the well-being viewing it as free from distress and dysfunction.[6],[7],[8] Keyes and Haidt argued that the mental health is one of the syndromes of well-being.[9],[10],[11] Shah and Marks recommended that wellbeing implies a feeling of satisfaction and happiness that makes an individual achievement oriented person who contributes to the welfare of the community.[12] Gable and Haidt suggested that the positive psychology contributes to the optimal functioning of people, groups, and institutions.[13],[14] Herzlich reported that well-being comprises the equilibrium maintained at physical, psychological level, plenty of physical resources, absence of fatigue, evenness of temper, freedom of movement and effectiveness in action, and good relations with other people.[15],[16] Headey and Wearing proposed that a change in well-being occurs only when, due to external forces, a person deviates from his or her equilibrium pattern of events and it is important to understand how people are able to cope with change which results in affecting the well-being of an individual.[17]

Operational definition of well-being

”Well-being may be defined as a homeostatic state of equilibrium which sets the human being in maintaining and building harmonious stability at the physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual levels.”

Theoretical foundation

Well-being is a dynamic concept that consists of two aspects – psychological and subjective well-being.[18],[19] These two basic indicators address both eudemonic and hedonic approaches.[20],[21] The eudemonic or human flourishing measures represent psychological well-being,[22] and hedonic measures comprise subjective well-being.[20] According to Aristotelian philosophy, eudemonic focuses more on diverse set of principles. Ryff and Singer define eudemonia as “the idea of striving towards excellence based on one's own unique potential.”[23],[24] There are four basic aspects of well-being: (1) meaning in life; (2) the psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, following self-determination theory; (3) domain-specific and overall life satisfaction; and (4) happiness. The subjective well-being comprises happiness and life satisfaction.[25] The term “hedonic” well-being refers to subjective feelings of happiness.[23] The social engagement and emotional support were found to be two predictors of subjective well-being.[26] The increase in emotional support leads to negatively associated with the decrease in negative effect on well-being, and the decrease in emotional support would be inversely associated with the increase in subjective well-being.[26] Diener et al. proposed that the subjective well-being constitutes of pleasant emotions which are associated with joy, contentment, happy, love, etc.; unpleasant emotions consist of sadness, anger, worry, stress, etc.; global life judgments include life satisfaction, fulfillment, meaning, success, etc.; and domain satisfaction involves satisfaction with marriage life, work satisfaction, health, and time spend on leisure activities.[27],[28],[29] The concept of positive psychology leads to enhance the level of psychological well-being, quality of life,[30] and optimal human functioning.[31],[32],[33] Spiritual well-being is an indication of an individual's quality of life in the spiritual dimension which signifies the spiritual health of an individual.[34] The spiritual dimensions consist of four domains of human existence for enhancing mental health of an individual. These spiritual dimensions comprise the following domains – relation with the self in the personal domain, relation with others, relation with the environment, and relation with the transcendental domain.[35] The WHO (1948) stated that health is not only considered as the absence of symptoms but also considered as a social, mental, and physical well-being.[36] Bech, Olsen, Kjoller and Rasmussen reported the major symptoms of depression (mental disorders) are depressed mood, lack of interest, lack of energy, restlessness, sleep disturbances, and nervousness.[37] The positive effects of wellbeing are enthusiastic, energetic, happy, calm, and feeling fresh and rested all the time.[38],[39] Baer et al. found in their study that mindfulness training program has a significant influence on psychological heath.[40] They reported that mindfulness and self-compassion were positively correlated with the meditation experience and psychological well-being.[40] The findings suggested that mindfulness and self-compassion play a significant role in improving the well-being in association with the intervention of meditation experience.[2],[39] Mindfulness contributes to boosting positive emotions and mitigating negative effects or emotions.[2] Baer et al. reported the positive relationship between meditation and well-being. It has been observed that mindfulness and self-compassion are positively associated with well-being enhancement along with mindfulness training program.[40] A regular practice of mindful meditation cultivates positivity, insight, wisdom, openness, equanimity, and compassion.[41] Mindfulness refers to awareness of painful thoughts and feelings rather than avoiding, suppressing, or overidentifying with them.[40],[42] The self-compassion affects psychological well-being very positively through the practice of yoga.[40] Yoga enhances the empathy level of an individual[43] and to establish awareness with higher levels of compassion, gratitude,[44] and respect toward both human and nonhuman relationships, ideas, and beliefs.[2] It helps to control emotions, inculcate the habit of thinking positively, and enhances an ability to fight in response to stress through cognitive restructuring framework.[45],[46] It increases life satisfaction[47] and improves hedonic wellbeing in an individual.[48],[49] Yoga relaxes and energizes the whole body that results in reducing muscle pain and tension, reducing anxiety,[50] improves sleep, increases parasympathetic activities,[19] increases concentration, attention and memory.[51],[52]

Yoga Nidra

Yoga Nidra (Sanskrit for yogic sleep) is a powerful yogic technique from the Tantra Yoga tradition.[53] Yoga Nidra is a probably best-known technique to induce complete physical, mental, and emotional relaxation.[53] Yoga Nidra is a state of consciousness, which is, neither sleep nor awakening, neither concentration nor hypnotism. It can be defined as an altered state of consciousness. It is both a name of state and of practice which creates an altered state of consciousness allowing the practitioner to relax and heal his being, expand his faculty of imagination, enter the realm of subconscious and superconscious, and effectively manifest seemingly magical changes in his life.[53] Swami Satyananda Saraswati explains Yoga Nidra as a state of mind between wakefulness and dream. When someone practices Yoga Nidra, he opens the deeper phases of the mind. During the practice of Yoga Nidra, the consciousness spread at different levels and the consciousness is suspended for a few moments periodically, which means that it alternates between the subconscious and unconscious states.[53]

Research problem

Due to excessive pressure, tight deadlines, and challenges faced by an individual at the time of uncertainty, people are victims of physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual disorders which result in deteriorating the well-being of an individual. In the past, major health problems were related to communicable diseases such as polio and tuberculosis, but today's health menaces are primarily related to stress-producing diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular or gastrointestinal illnesses, and psychosomatic disorders. The use of cigarettes, alcohol, and other external agents are used more frequently as a means of sensory satisfaction and stress reduction. Unfortunately, these devices bring only temporary pleasure while at the same time producing harmful side effects (e.g., deterioration of the nervous system and vital organs). Some people prefer to take medication without considering the side effects of medicines. People do not aware about the exact causes of the disease; nowadays, most of the problems arise due to stress. The stress causes deterioration in well-being of an individual and also brings disorders at the physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual levels which cannot be permanently cured by the medicines. There are various stress management interventional strategies developed by our ancient Acharayas or Rishis through which the effect of stress can be mitigated without any side effect on the body. These traditional interventional strategies such as Yogic Asanas, Pranayama, breathing exercises, or Shavasanas have been found to elicit the deep relaxation of the automatic nervous system, resulting in treating physiological and psychological disorders.[54],[55],[56] Few studies have been done to examine the effectiveness of Yoga Nidra on stress related to psychological and psychosomatic disorders.[57] It has been postulated by Swami Satyananda in the literature of Yoga Nidra that Yoga Nidra releases physical, mental, and emotional tensions and relaxes the body as a whole. However, there is no scientific instrument of well-being developed which measures these relaxation responses. Therefore, this research proposed to develop the instrument which measures the well-being scientifically at physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual levels. The variables have been identified based on the above literature and opinions of experts. Initially, seven variables of spiritual well-being were developed: connectedness, searching meaning and purpose, compassion and empathy, awareness about self and universe or environment, belief on values and inner life, and mindfulness. Later on, variable “belief on values and inner life” is merged into variable compassion. There are two items developed for awareness, nine items for compassion, four items developed for mindfulness, three items for meaningfulness, six items for transcendence, and three items for connection.

Objectives

The main objective of the study is to explore and validate the physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual well-being factors and to determine the influence of physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual dimensions on well-being. The following hypotheses have been formulated to test the various results. H1: There is a significant influence of four dimensions – physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual levels on well-being. H2: Well-being comprises four dimensions – physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual.


  Methods Top


The “pre- and postexperimental” research design has been used to examine the impact of Yoga Nidra on stress among people. The sample selected for the study was 200 participants which have been divided into two groups – each group has 100 participants selected for the study. The first group constitutes of control group (in which no interventions were given). This group had not practice Yoga Nidra. Group 2: Another group is an interventional or experimental group (Yoga Nidra used as an intervention). In this group, the individuals had been instructed to practice Yoga Nidra. The data were collected from the participants before and after the administration of Yoga Nidra. The training of Yoga Nidra was provided once in a week for 1 month to the participants and asked them to practice Yoga Nidra in their home. There is one follow-up at an interval of 1 month to assess the level of well-being. The participants of both the genders under the age group of 16–75 years were included in the study. People below 16 years and above 70 years of age or suffering from terminal diseases or life-threatening disease irrespective of their age were excluded from the study. The respondents were taken from various centers of Patanjali, Lucknow, and BHU, Varanasi. The respondents were informed that their data shall be kept confidentially and used for academics and research purpose only. All the cases have been investigated on a uniform protocol/pro forma which includes the demographic profiles of the individuals.

Measures

The data have been collected by means of instruments to examine the level of stress that will be assessed with the help of (1) stress scale (Singh M, 2002) and (2) self-developed instrument for well-being. The researcher has developed the instrument of well-being based on previous studies with the consultation of experts in the area of yogic science, psychologists, management academicians, and doctors of Ayurveda. The instrument consists of four dimensions of well-being which include physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual. It contains 7 items at physical level, 9 items at mental level, 23 items at emotional level, and 25 items at spiritual level. The spiritual dimension was further divided into five subdimensions such as compassion, mindfulness, meaningfulness, transcendence, and connection.[58] The scale is designed in the form of Likert type measured in terms of seven categories such as strongly disagree = 1 to strongly agree = 7. The scale was subjected to pretesting before administering it into the final collection of data as per the requirement of scientific research in order to capture the most appropriate response from the respondents. The pilot study was conducted on fifty respondents for testing the questionnaire among the individuals, and suggested changes were incorporated into the final questionnaire. All questionnaires were subjected to administer on respondents for assessing the reliability and validity of the questionnaire in order to ensure the robustness of the results.


  Results Top


Reliability test of well-being instrument

The internal reliability of the instrument of well-being is determined by Cronbach's alpha. It determines the closeness of a related set of items which comprise a whole group. The reliability of the well-being scale is 0.798 [Table 1]. It is close to 0.8, which showed internal consistencies in the items which comprised a group.
Table 1: Exploratory factor analysis

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For the development and validation of well-being inventory, theory-driven approach (construct-oriented) approach was adopted for scale development of well-being. Subconstruct and related items and variables were decided based on review of empirical, philosophical, and other literatures of management, yoga, spirituality, and psychology. The three steps need to be followed for the development of well-being instrument: (1) item creation, (2) validity check, and (3) reliability testing. A battery of 65 items has been developed based on operational definition of the abovementioned construct. In order to validate and analyze the casual relationship between well-being and its observed variables, physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual, initially, exploratory factor analysis was conducted to explore the factors and second the aim of the study is to validate the well-being inventory and testing the hypothesis to test the relationship between well-being and its latent subconstructs such as physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual. First, exploratory factor analysis is performed to explore the latent factors and to identify the relationship between measured variables. EFA predicts more accurate results when there are multiple measured variables grouped together and share some commonness to form various factors. In order to make the model fit, the factor loadings or regression coefficient and unique variances measure the influence of common factors on measured variables. In this case, questionnaire of well-being (latent construct) consists of 65 items, which constitutes four different subconstructs: physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual (latent constructs). The first and foremost step in data reduction technique is Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) Measure of Sampling Adequacy, also called Bartlett's test of sphericity. The KMO Measure of Sampling Adequacy showed values >0.5 in all the parameters of well-being, and if Bartlett's test observed a significant P value in the statistical analysis, it indicates that further analysis could be done in factor analysis procedure. The factor loadings of all items are >0.5, which indicates that all the measured variables have the strongest relationship with latent construct [Table 2]. Then, the communality presents the extraction values >0.5, which signifies that all the measured variables share common variance with the construct upon which it loads.
Table 2: Reliability statistics

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From the extensive review of literature, 65 items have been identified for making the questionnaire which measures the well-being at physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual levels. These items have been formulated with the discussion held with other researchers, academicians, and medical practitioners. After analyzing the whole questionnaire, data were collected from a sample population of 200 individuals who are actively participating in the Yoga Nidra training program. The responses have been further analyzed through exploratory factor analysis. After conducted exploratory factor analysis, the following four dimensions have been identified as physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual factors. Further, some items exhibit cross-loadings that may be rejected such as self-awareness, memory, decision-making capacity, internal locus of control, inspiration and motivation, respect values, decision-making based on conscience, and spiritual strength. One item constitutes of variable sadness, showing that very less loading may be rejected. The reliability of the instrument is found to be very high 0.938, which indicates that the instrument is highly reliable. The items given in [Table 3] are rejected due to cross-loading, and the last item Emo4 is rejected due to factor loading <0.5 [Table 3].
Table 3: Reliability statistics

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The well-being instrument used for the study has been developed self by the researcher, which comprised 65 items measuring various factors such as physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual dimensions of well-being. For the sake of convenience in analysis, the researcher decided to reduce the factors, so that similar kinds of factors are grouped together. The first and foremost step in data reduction technique (factor analysis) is KMO Measure of Sampling Adequacy, also called Bartlett's Test of Sphericity. KMO Measure of Sampling Adequacy is an index used to examine the appropriateness of factor analysis. In general, values below 0.5 indicate that the model is not fit or needs not to be adopted. The output showed that all the items have factor loading >0.5 except two factors, Emo4 and SpirComp11; therefore, these two items in [Table 1] were rejected. For the present set of data under investigation, [Table 1] indicates the value of KMO test. It is clearly stated that KMO Measure of Sampling Adequacy value is much higher than 0.5, and in Bartlett's test, the significance value is <0.05, which showed that the researcher can proceed further with the step of factor analysis process. The researcher opted for principal component analysis as it is the primary method of exploratory factor analysis. The factor loading, eigenvalue, and the rotated factor matrix extracted four factors of well-being. Later on, the factors identified were compared with the standardized scale, and it is revealed that variables loaded in a similar manner as it is in the standard scale. In the SPSS output (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill., USA), the value of the communality is found to be >0.5, which showed that the total amount of variance a measured variable has in common with the construct upon which it loads. It is proved that the items explained the variance in a measured variable by the construct.

The confirmatory factor analysis method has been conducted to confirm the factor structure of the model to indicate that which variables are loaded on which factors and which factors are correlated. In this model, the hypothesis is used to test whether the subconstructs – physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual dimensions – influence the well-being (latent construct). It also explains the covariance of the latent variable that converged to form a construct. In order to test the model fit, the Chi-square value was found to be 158.661 at (0.000) significance level. Chi-square Mean (CMIN) 1.687 <3 is considered to be a good [Table 4], comparative fit index (CFI) is 0.903 [Table 5] which is greater than threshold level of 0.9, parsimonious goodness of fit index (PCFI>0.7) probability of testing the null hypothesis is lesser than 0.05 [Table 6], the root mean square error of approximation value is found to be 0.059 [Table 7] closer to threshold level of 0.05 and lesser than 0.10, which indicates that the model is good fit. The residual value shown in AMOS output is below 4, which signifies that the model is good fit. The instrument consists of 65 items in which 61% of the cumulative variance is explained by the physical components, 59% of the cumulative variance is explained by the mental variable, 59% of the cumulative is explained by the emotional variable, and in spiritual component connection, meaningful and mindfulness emerge as prominent predictors of the spiritual component. The instrument consists of 65 items, out of which 21 items are left after deleting items on the basis of higher values found in modification indices and low factor loading. The covariance is drawn between error terms of e5 and e9, e16 and e20, e42 and e43, e38 and e39, and e26 and e 27 in order to make the model good fit. Now, the model is proved to be good fit.
Table 4: Chi-square (X2) likelihood ratio chi-square (CMIN)

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Table 5: Comparative fit index

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Table 6: Parsimonious goodness of fit index

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Table 7: Root mean squared error of approximation item reliability and factor loadings

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Notes for model (default model)

Result (default model)

Minimum was achieved

Chi-square = 158.661

Degrees of freedom = 95

Probability level = 0.000

Nomological validity

Nomological validity was tested by examining whether the correlations between the constructs in the measurement model make sense. The construct correlations were used to assess nomological validity in the HBAT model, and the constructs must be positively related based on HBAT theory. The output showed that all the correlations were found to be positive, and in covariance table, P value was found to be < 0.05; hence, the model was significant. It indicates that nomological validity exists in the model.

Validity of different constructs of well-being

Physical construct

Average variance extracted (AVE) was 53%, total construct loading (TCL) was 5.112, and construct reliability was 88.9%, indicating that the construct was highly reliable [Table 8]. It provided strong support for the convergent validity. Therefore, all the indicator items were retained at this point, and adequate evident of convergent validity was provided. Interconstruct correlation (IC) of physical dimension was 0.470, and squared IC (SIC) was 0.220. Discriminant validity of physical construct compares the AVE estimates for each factor with the SICs associated with that factor. In [Table 9], AVE was found to be more than SIC; therefore, it satisfied the condition of the discriminant validity in physical subconstruct.
Table 8: Construct reliability for physical sub-construct

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Table 9: Discriminant validity (physical construct)

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Mental construct

AVE was 53.962%, TCL was 4.317, construct reliability was 79.91%, and construct reliability was 79.91%, indicating that the construct was highly reliable [Table 10]. It provided strong support for the convergent validity. Therefore, all the items were retained at this point, and adequate evidence of convergent validity was provided. IC of mental dimension was 0.458 and -SIC was 0.209. In [Table 11], AVE was found to be more than SIC; therefore, it satisfied the condition of the discriminant validity in mental construct.
Table 10: Construct reliability for mental subconstruct

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Table 11: Discriminant validity (mental construct)

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Emotional construct

AVE was 37.6%, TCL was 13.393, and construct reliability was found to be 87.227%, indicating that the construct was highly reliable [Table 12]. It provided strong support for the convergent validity. Therefore, all the indicator items were retained at this point, and adequate evident of convergent validity was provided. IC of emotional dimension was 0.590. SIC was 0. In [Table 13], AVE was more than SIC; therefore, it satisfied the condition of discriminant validity in emotional construct.
Table 12: Construct reliability for emotional subconstruct

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Table 13: Discriminant validity (emotional construct)

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Spiritual construct

AVE was found to be 79% [Table 14], and construct reliability was 97.92%, indicating that the construct is highly reliable [Table 15]. It provided the strong support for the convergent validity. Therefore, all the indicator items were retained at this point, and adequate evidence of convergent validity was provided. In all construct, AVE estimates should be larger than the corresponding SIC estimates [Table 16]. This indicates that the measured variables have more in common with the construct they were associated with than they do with the other constructs. IC of physical ~ mental was 0.458. SIC was 0.209. It compares the AVE estimates for each factor with the SICs associated with that factor. In [Table 14], AVE is more than SIC; therefore, it satisfied the condition of the discriminant validity in spiritual construct. The IC table showed a moderate and positive relationship between various constructs, whereas in covariance table, P values showed a significant existence of nomological validity. Then further, all the AVE have been computed to determine the discriminant validity. The results can be observed in the table that all AVE of all the factors are greater than corresponding squared IC estimates, respectively. Therefore, four-construct CFA model demonstrated discriminant validity. All AVE estimates in the table were larger than the corresponding SIC estimates. This means that the indicators have more in common with the construct they were associated with than they do with other constructs. Therefore, the HBAT four-construct CFA model demonstrated discriminant validity.[44]
Table 14: Discriminant validity of spiritual dimension

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Table 15: Construct loadings and construct reliability of spiritual dimension

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Table 16: Discriminant validity of well-being construct

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Objective

To determine the influence of physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual dimensions on well-being, multiple regression analysis was performed to test the proposed hypothesis for predicting the variables of latent construct (well-being). The model summary in data analysis showed that the value of R Square was 0.797. It is interpreted that well-being explains 80% of the variances predicted by all the physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual variables (latent construct). “Significant F-change” is the overall significance of the model. Here, in model summary, F-statistic indicates the overall significance of the model (P < 0.05)

Well-being = −0.999 + 0.092 P + 0.215 M + 0.004 E + 0.903 S


  Discussion Top


Exploratory factor analysis was performed to explore the various factors of well-being on the basis of physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual levels. The SPPS output showed that their loadings were found to be more than 0.5, which indicates that the model was good fit. KMO values for measuring sampling adequacy were found to be more than 0.5 in all the variables, and the significance level was less than the default limit, which indicates that the model was good fit. Sixty-five measured variables were used to identify different factors undertaken for the study. These measured variables grouped together to form factors. New factors have also been recognized after conducting exploratory factor analysis – three factors were explored at physical level which include physical pain and tiredness, appetite, and sleep and addiction, three factors have been explored at mental level of well-being – mental growth, mental development, and mental stability, and four factors have been explored at emotional level – emotional stability, negative emotions, psychic distress, and emotional detachment. The physical level of well-being supports with an agreement of Ivtzan and Jagatheeswaran who reported that yogic asana improves flexibility and gives physical strength to an individual.[49] The practitioners practice yoga for developing physical strength and maintaining fitness. Halpern et al. have found a significant improvement in sleep quality, fatigue, anxiety, general well-being, sleep efficiency, stress, tension, anger, vitality, and increased quality of life function in physical, emotional, and social[59] roles after practicing yoga.[60] The enhancement of positive emotions and life satisfaction[47] leads to promote subjective well-being and hence contribute to developing hedonic well-being.[61] The physical, mental, and emotional dimensions of well-being were backed with the evidence reported by Bech et al. in their studies.[62] The findings of gaining physical, emotional, and spiritual health through the practice of yoga have been supported by the evidence produced by Hatha Yoga Pradipika written in the 15 century.[63] The emotional component of well-being was agreed by Cummins and Ryan and Deci who have taken as one of the major factors of well-being undertaken for the study.[64],[65] The findings of the study were in line with the agreement of the proposition of Ivtzan and Chan who claimed that spirituality promotes psychological well-being aspects.[66] There are five subdimensions identified at spiritual level – compassion,[40] mindfulness,[67] meaningfulness,[68],[69] transcendence,[70] and connection.[71] Four subfactors were explored under compassion[1] – awakening,[63] dynamic, intuition, and empathetic.[72] The mindfulness dimension constitutes three factors that include focused, rational judgment and multi-tasker. Two factors explored in meaningfulness subdimension – purposeful[73] and energetic,[49] and transcendence has two factors – spiritual energy and inspirational. Last but not the least, connection subdimension at spiritual level constitutes two factors explored through EFS, namely recognition and engagement.[74] Baumeister and Voh argued that the connection is related to the union or establishing connection with self, others, and union of both.[75] Lazarus suggested that gratitude is considered as one of the positive emotions that have been conceived to be dependent on an individual's capacity to empathize others.[54],[68] The results have supported the contribution of meaningful dimension of spiritual component reported by Zika and Chamberlain who examined the relationship between meaning in life and psychological well-being. The purposeful was a major component of spiritual dimension of well-being which was supported by Ryff and Singer studies proposed as one of the components of eudemonic aspects of well-being.[24],[68] Harris et al. conducted a study which primarily focused on mindfulness awareness of thoughts, emotions, behaviors, and sensations, regulates emotions and improves physical relaxation, and promotes positive emotion such as compassion, contentment, and gratitude[21] with feelings a sense of community with colleagues.[76] The findings had supported with the reporting of the study conducted by Prasad et al. who found that after a 6-week training program of yoga, a significant improvement was observed in achieving peace level and adopting a more focused approach.[63] It leads to bring improvement in happiness,[16] positivity, self-satisfaction, and improving well-being.[77] CFA model showed the presence of nomological validity, convergent validity, and discriminant validity.[63]


  Conclusion Top


The study seeks to explore and validate the physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual factors of well-being. Multiple regressions were used to predict the values of variances (in percentage) of independent variables such as physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual levels and their contribution in forming the well-being construct. In the above equation of multiple regressions, the spiritual dimension emerged as the most prominent factor explaining the well-being construct. Finally, the scale of well-being was developed by keeping these factors of relaxation into consideration – physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual levels. The spiritual level has further classified into five subconstructs – compassion, mindfulness, meaningfulness, transcendence, and connection. The observed variables falling under different factors have been identified from the literature of Yoga Nidra and well-being. After identifying these variables, grouped these into different factors, exploratory factor analysis has been performed to explore new factors, clubbing them together in order to reduce the factor dimensions and nomenclature them on the basis of their common properties. In the results, factor loadings were found to be more than threshold limit of 0.5, which specify the strongest relationship between latent constructs and observed variables. Further, the reliability of the instrument showed consistency in various dimensions of the instrument. Confirmatory factor analysis has been performed to validate the model for verifying the theoretical construct “well-being.” The results have also shown validation in agreement with the available literature, and experiential learning of the individuals strengthens the belief of enhancing the overall well-being of the individuals at different levels - physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual.

Limitations and implications

The limitation of the study was that the participants were asked to practice yoga in their homes, so there is a restriction of regularly monitoring them whether they practice yoga regularly or not. The research will contribute to the society and government by giving input of practicing Yoga Nidra for the welfare and well-being of the society and make the society free from diseases. It would also contribute to maintaining the people's well-being without taking medication. Yoga helps to treat various diseases such as depression, anxiety, heart attacks, stroke, hypertension, immune system disturbances, cardio-vascular or gastro-intestinal illnesses and psychosomatic disorders, skin (rashes, hives, atopic dermatitis), the gastrointestinal system (GERD, peptic ulcer, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis), insomnia and degenerative neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease.

The organization should conduct various yogic training programs at the workplace in order to improve the productivity of the employees. As a result, the cost of the medication at an individual level can be saved by improving the well-being of an individual, thus saving the cost of an organization as a whole by improving the productivity and profits. As a result, the whole economy may get boosted. People should practice Yoga Nidra in order to improve their well-being.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10], [Table 11], [Table 12], [Table 13], [Table 14], [Table 15], [Table 16]



 

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